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Socialism came 9,000 years ago, or what do we know about the Bronze age

The bronze age is not just an era when people began to kill each other with bronze swords instead of stone axes. It was in the bronze age that the first revolution took place, the goal of which was to achieve equality. In the bronze age, the first major battle of the two armies took place. In the bronze age, there were complex ideas about the afterlife and the first attempts to open the third eye surgically.
Freedom, equality, fraternity: the revolution that took place 9,000 years ago
In 1958, a bronze age settlement was found under one of the hills in Turkey, known as Chatal Huyuk. Excavations and research have shown that the settlement existed for at least fourteen centuries and was definitely located on this site in the period from 7000 BC to 6000 BC.

Despite the fact that up to 8,000 people lived in Chatal Huyuk at one time, it would be more correct to call it a village than a city: it did not have a single administrative building, a single street, or even a main square. The houses were wall to wall, and people entered through a hole in the roof that also served as a chimney. On the roofs of the same engaged in the manufacture of household items. Inside the houses, people slept, cooked, and stored food. They buried the dead under beds, and it seems that not only their relatives-that is, the houses could pass from family to family. When the house got tired of repairing and plastering the inside, it was turned into the Foundation for a new house. They ate quite well and varied, the average height of the men was 175 cm, and all their teeth were in excellent condition. The only thing-judging by the skeletons of children (and they often died before a year), the babies suffered from anemia.

Scientists have long tried to understand the structure of society. Even if there was no social stratification in Chatal Huyuk, they wondered who was more important-men or women? Patriarchy reigned or matriarchy?

Women and men ate equally well. There was no more soot on the inside of the women’s ribs than on the inside of the men’s, so they spent about the same amount of time inside, by the hearth. The burials of both were made with the same degree of respect. There were more men in the paintings on the walls, but more women in the figurines. Surprisingly, there seemed to be absolute equality in Chatal Huyuk! How is this possible?

Further archaeological findings and their analysis said that the society catalhuyuk not always lived according to the ideas of freedom and equality. Not far from the settlement, we found a village of the same culture, but slightly older. But there were all traces of social stratification, including a huge stone ritual complex and temples with human blood on their altars. Complexes and temples of considerable size cannot be built outside of societies with strong centralized power. The thing was, the ritual structures were clearly filled in on purpose, about seven thousand years ago.

Everything pointed to the fact that the ancestors of the Chatal Huyuk people already knew the stratification into classes, but one day there was a revolution. And after this revolution, property began to be distributed (remember the houses that pass from family to family), and all residents (and, what is particularly rare, women) received an equal number of benefits and opportunities. Perhaps the family even took turns cooking both men and women (both inhaled the same amount of smoke). In any case, their burials contain the same number of ornaments and tools and do not differ in the given poses. And such a celebration of social justice could last for many centuries. Not bad.

In 1996, archaeologists were contacted by a man who discovered a human bone with a silicon tip in it near the Tonsele river. Until now, the site of its discovery is being excavated and research. So far, scientists can say little.

First, there was a battle on this site of such magnitude that in Ancient Egypt it would not have been too lazy to describe it – but the Egyptians, along with writing, were far away. In an area where the average density was about 5 people per square kilometer, from 2,000 to 4,000 warriors met in battle. Second, it occurred just about the same time as the battle between the Egyptians and the Hittites at Kadish, and a hundred years before the Trojan war.

Near the river Tonsile was arranged the real slaughter, but we can’t even know why

Near the river Tonsile was arranged the real slaughter, but we can’t even know why
All of the dead were healthy men aged 20 to 40, meaning it was a clash of troops, not a tribe-on-tribe RAID. In addition, scientists believe that only the remains of the defeated lie near the river. So it was not the custom of the victors to bury any dead to propitiate them. They threw the corpses of their enemies to be devoured by birds and animals. However, some of their own, apparently, were not found. Their remains are mixed with those of their enemies.

Although there are traces of swords on the bones, no blades were found on the dead, only arrowheads and spears and axes with clubs and clubs. Obviously, the swords were too expensive, they were picked up on the battlefield.

Some of the soldiers fought on horseback – found the skeletons of horses. In addition, some of the wounds were inflicted from the bottom up, meaning that the victors fought on foot against the horsemen. Before the Tonsel excavations, it was believed that only nomads fought on horseback in this era. In addition, it turns out that the Europeans saddled horses earlier than the developed southern civilizations.

DNA analysis showed that the losers came from far away – from the territory of the current Czech Republic, Slovakia or Poland. The winners were probably local residents. It is difficult to imagine what prompted the huge Bronze age to go far from home and attack a foreign army. Due to the lack of written language, we know almost nothing about the political, economic, and ideological relations of the inhabitants of ancient Europe.

It was in the bronze age that some cultures, judging by the graves, began to kill widows and bury them with their husbands. This is due to the development of ideas about life after death, in which a person needs all the same things that he used before, and the development of inequality in the position of men and women. Women’s lives were no longer equal to men’s: no one killed widowers to keep married couples together. Women are put in the graves of men along with jewelry, tools, weapons, clothing, that is, things.

Several skulls with unique holes belong to the Bronze age. They were left without weapons: there are no cracks around, the edges are very smooth. Most likely, they were literally scraped layer by layer into the bones of the skull. Perhaps the bone was also very carefully cut out. In any case, the hole was made where it is easy to damage the brain. Despite this high risk, most of the trepanated patients survived the operation.

Yes, bronze tools were suitable for such complex operations. This was verified experimentally by Novosibirsk neurosurgeon Alexey Krivoshapkin. He used a bronze knife, which was made from samples found by archaeologists, doctor of historical Sciences Andrey Borodovsky. It took 15 minutes to scrape the round hole in the skull of the corpse. The diameter of the hole was 2.5 centimeters.

Another question is, why did the Bronze age people have holes in their skulls? There is no rational reason to do them EN masse. It remains to assume only ritual purposes. For example, patients were shamans, and they were given a window to communicate with the spirit world. If trepanation led to epilepsy and hallucinations, trepanated people thought that they really opened, relatively speaking, the third eye.

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